Image: Pulpit Panel Artist: Surau langgar and Kelantan Year: Late 19th c
Page: 43 Material: Cengal wood
Found In: Noor, F. A., and Eddin Khoo. Spirit of Wood: The Art of Malay Woodcarving,
(Singapore: Periplus, 2003), 43.
The artwork Pulpit panel is made from wood and it has beautiful craved designs on it. As this artwork is made out of wood we cannot use modeling because it is not possible to model a wood to make structures from it. For modeling we need pliable material to built up shapes and structures, since wood is very hard and we cannot modeled it into different shapes. Therefore, we cannot use modeling to make things from wood. We also cannot use casting to make things from wood because in casting material is melted and poured into required mold. As we cannot melt wood so it is impossible to use casting method for wooden objects. Carving is easy and feasible method for wood. In carving artists cut or chip a wood and create different designs and pattern on it or make sculptures out of it. Carving is also known as subtracting method because artists remove extra material until the desired shape is completely formed (Class lecture). Mostly, carving is used to make artwork from hard material such as wood and stone because these materials are relatively easy to carve out. Casting or modeling is very difficult or it is impossible to use for materials like wood, stone, bones, etc.
Image: Head of a Queen Olokun Artist: Yoruba artisans Culture: Yoruba Culture
Page No: 192 Material: Bronze
Found In: Stearns, Peter N. World Civilizations: The Global Experience. 6th ed, (Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2011), 192.
The artwork Head of a Queen olokun was made by cast method. In casting material is melted and poured into desired mold to get the final product and mostly metals are used for this process. As metal is easy to melt on very high temperature to get molten state which can easily be poured into required mold to get different objects (Class Lecture). Since, this artwork is made from bronze which is a very heavy and an expensive metal. Casting is the best way to make things from bronze because if we craved bronze firstly, it is very hard and we cannot carve it easily. Secondly, bronze is an expensive metal and we don’t want to waste it. Thirdly, sculpture made by carving will be heavy and it is difficult to stand for much longer time (Class lecture). Therefore, craving is not suitable for metal objects and especially for bronze. Modeling is also not suitable to make things from bronze and other metals. As in modeling we use our hands to modify material into desired shape. Since, solid metals are too hard and molten state has very high temperature to handle with hand. Therefore, we cannot use modeling for metals. Thus, casting is the easy and cheap way to make durable and affordable objects from expensive metals like bronze.
Image: Clay Cart Artists: Unknown Time Period: 2500 to 1600 B.C.E
Page No: 52 Material: Clay Civilization: Indus Valley Civilization
Found In: Stearns, Peter N. World Civilizations: The Global Experience. 6th ed, (Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2011), 52.
Modeling is a common method to make sculptures and other objects from pliable material. Most of the time clay, wax, or plaster is use for modeling method. During modeling artists used their hands to build up and shaped sculptures from malleable materials. Modeling is also called additive process because artists add material to make the sculptures (Class lecture). Modeling is contrasting to craving where we used a hard material and make things out of them, therefore; we cannot use carving for this artwork as it is made from clay. In modeling artists use soft material and add more and more material together to get the required shape and sculptures. Though artists can crave hard clay it needs lots of afford and carefulness. Since hard clay is brittle and difficult to carve. On the other hand wet clay is malleable and we can easy modify it with our hands to make structures. Also casting is not used to make this artwork because in casting material is melt and poured into different designs as we cannot melt clay hence we cannot use casting to make things from clay.