15 June, 2013
George Orwell, in his novel Animal Farm uses allegory very effectively to give a picture of Russian Revolution and its out comes with the passage of time and with the gain of power by Political leaders. Every animal in Animal Farm depicts real characters of Russian Revolution. In whole novel Orwell has very craft fully uses literary tactic to dig the depth of Politics and the reality of power hungry Politicians of Russian. Above all the ending of Animal Farm is very thought provoking and magnificent because such ending not only represents Russian Politicians but also all those Politicians who are self-centered and can do anything for the sake of power. At the end of Animal Farm, Orwell shows that how the seven commandments which were made after overthrown of Mr. Jones: the owner of Animal Farm, transformed into a single commandment and he also high lights the causes and effects of these changes on the life of ordinary people.
The first message in the ending of Animal Farm is that with the passage of time nations are forgetting the aims of getting independent homeland and their intention to freedom from slavery. It is because by the time most of the people who scarify and did uphill struggle for independence are not more alive and changes in Laws and constitutions are so rapid that finally no real aim of freedom is remain in constitution. Whole constitution fills up with biased rules made by power hungry politician for their own benefits. In addition to this propaganda play vital role to persuade innocent nations, especially working class people who are less educated or most of the time uneducated; they believe on all those information which are deliver to them from propaganda departments of politicians to convince them. As Orwell mentions in his novel that, “many animals had been born to whom the Rebellion was only a dim tradition” (85) here Orwell demonstrate new generation for whom Rebellion was not more than past story or outdated event. This is true for every nation and in context of Russia people were forget about the main purpose of Russian Revolution, now they were busy with tough daily routine where they get very few time to concentrate on such issues. Most of them had no idea that how life was before Russian Revolution. They were told by propaganda department that, “If they went hungry, it was not from feeding tyrannical human beings; if they work hard at least they worked for themselves” (88) it means that now Russian people are living in better life because now they are free and there are doing work for their own benefit not for Tsar Nicholas: King of Russia.
Secondly, Orwell explains that though how much any country became economically strong and powerful ordinary people are not getting any advantage from it. In addition to this the contribution of common people especially of working class people in up left of economy is enormous and they are the only people in any state or country who suffer a lot. “Somehow it seemed as though the farm had grown richer without making the animals themselves any richer_ except, of course, for the pigs and the dogs” (86) here Orwell illuminates the fact that people who are getting advantage from the advancement of economy are only upper class people and Politicians but the fate of ordinary people remain same despite of their hard work and dedication for the betterment of state. The so called official work done by upper class people and politician is exaggerated by propaganda department_ work done by politicians is more important, difficult and it needs more energy because they are supposed to use their mental abilities to run the state. The job of politician and other people who dealt with organization and management is hard so they need more pay and sophisticated life as they play vital role in safeguarding of a state. For instance the job of upper class people is “ enormous labours every day upon mysterious things called ‘files’, ‘reports’, ‘minutes’, and ‘memoranda’” (86) which is even difficult to understand by common people but it is true that in production of goods upper class people have no contribution and they savor the most delicious appetites.
Thirdly, Orwell demonstrates that despite of hard life animals were happy with their life because, “No creature called any other creature ‘Master’. All animals were equal” (88). After overthrown of Tsar Russian people were happy to have their own government which they established by vote so they were ready to face every challenge with happiness because they were not ruled by any King to whom they called Master. All the rules which were initially passed by all animals were changed with the interest of pigs. The slogan sang by sheep was changed from “Four legs good, two legs bad” to “ four legs good, two legs better” (89) this all show the change in behavior of people and their hater towards bias deeds of Politicians. The most important thing to be noticed is replacement of all seven rules with the single rule, “All animals are equal but some animals are more equal than others” (90). This is one of the main message given by Orwell at the end of his novel: though the great achievement by animals in this novel was that they were equal, by the time they come to know that upper class people and working class people cannot be equal despite of same race, creed or nation. Higher class people prefer to have company with only higher class societies and working class people are there to produce more and more so upper class can have better life. The situation in Russia was much similar to animal farm where the difference between Proletarian and Bourgeoisie was increasing day by day. Working class was becoming poor and poorer and upper class was becoming rich and richer.
Finally, Orwell discloses the truth that Power Hungry Politicians can do anything to gain more and more power, “For the first time animals and human beings were meeting on terms of equality” (91). From very beginning animals consider human as their biggest enemies but at the end for the personal gain Napoleon: the head of Animal Farm, join hands with human beings. Human beings, Napoleon and other pigs celebrate their new friendship and Mr. Pilkington, owner of Foxwood farm, gave congratulation to Napoleon for his mistreats with other animals, “ Mr. Pilkington once again congratulation the pigs on the low rations, the long working-hours and the general absence of pampering… on Animal Farm” (93). This scenario portrait the self-interested behavior of upper class people who always neglect needs and interests of working class people. Furthermore, Napoleon considered all animals of Animal Farm stupid because they address each other “‘Comrade’ (93) Napoleon also changed name of Animal Farm to Manor Farm which was its old name during the time of Mr. Jones. It shows that when pigs gain power they also behave like human beings. Then Orwell states that, “from pig to man, and from man to pig, and form pig to man again; but already it was impossible to say which was which” (95). Here Orwell very clearly explains that all Politicians are same they might be animals or human beings they all start to behave in same manner.
Consequently, power is root of all evils and fate of working class people never change due to any Political Revolution or any other movement. Most of the time power of state is concentrated in few hands and they decide future of working class people. Upper class people are there to command on working class people and enjoy all the available facilities. The most important thing is that power hunger people never think good for others they are egocentric and always concern about themselves.