28 March, 2014
Grossman, Lev. “Why The 9/11 Conspiracies Won’t Go Away.” Time 168.11 (2006): 46
48. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Feb. 2014.
This article explains why people believe in conspiracy theories while discussing the terrorist attacks on the US on September 11 2001. According to this article, it seems that for every big event there should be a big reason and when people don’t see any complex explanation behind big events like September 11 they come up with conspiracy theories. The author, senior writer and book critic for Time, Lev Grossman in his article, “Why the 9/1 Conspiracies Won’t Go Away” says that human beings tend to search for a reason behind every event and, especially for big events, people try to find out elaborate reasons related to them. When people fail to find any believable reason they come up with conspiracies and over time they become conspiracy theories.
Jenkinson, Gillie. “Working with Cult Survivors.” Therapy Today 24.4 (2013): 18-21. Academic
Search Premier. Web. 16 Feb. 2014.
In this article the author discuses many tactics used by cult leaders to maintain power over their followers. The author discusses his own experience of being a member of a cult group for several years. According to the article most cult leaders use the following tactics to control their followers: give extra love and care to their followers in initial days, force seclusion, forbid communication and interaction with the world, provoke fear to ensure obedience, and manipulate their followers psychologically, mentally and physically. Further, the author says people usually join cults to avoid or to lessen their stress and to get mental and spiritual relief, but most of the time people end up in a worse situation. Therapists can be helpful for people who join cults but often people feel shy or feel stupid to share their problems with therapists.
Krauss, Andreas. “False Memories.” Scientific American Mind 16.4 (2005): 12-15. Academic
Search Premier. Web. 17 Feb. 2014.
This article is an interview with professor of psychology and law Elizabeth Loftus. The main idea discussed in this article is that repressed memory is not real. Most of the time psychiatrists induce different thoughts in patients due to which patients perceive their imagined memories to be true. Loftus believe that human memories can change over time and even sometimes eyewitnesses may be wrong. Further, she claims that repressed memory theory has more disadvantages for patients and for society. During memory recall therapy psychiatrists provide an atmosphere to their patients in which they can easily imagine different events which are totally false. As a result, many psychological and social problems are happening in society. For example, many people believe horrible things happened to them in their past and this breaks up many families.
Reisner, Andrew D. “Repressed Memories: True and False.” Psychological Record 46.4 (1996):
563. Academic search Premier. Web. 15 Feb. 2014.
The author says that accurate memories have been found by different researchers, but some of them have misinterpreted by therapists. The experiments on repressed memory have certain limitations because it is difficult to distinguish between true and false recalled memories. Researchers claim that some experimental evidence support repressed memory theory and personality study also helps to identify true and false recalled memories. The main point of this article is that repressed memories exist and they can be recovered by psychiatrists, though the authors agree that not all recovered memories are true.
Shermer, Michael. “Paranoia Strikes Deep.” Scientific American 301.3 (2009): 30. Academic
Search Premier. Web. 15 Feb. 2014.
This article talks about many conspiracy theories from the past to demonstrate why conspiracy theories developed and why people believe in such theories. According to the article when more people are involved in conspiracies these theories become complex and less true. The article claims that conspiracy theories are developed because they have connections with the real world and have complex explanations which make sense to people. The author says that people have different levels of understanding about different things, therefore; people interpret conspiracy theories according to their own understanding.
Van der Linden, Sander. “What a Hoax.” Scientific American Mind 24.4 (3013): 40.
MasterFILE Premier. Web. 14 Feb. 2014.
This article discusses conspiracy theories and highlights many reasons behind such theories. The article claims that many people believe in conspiracy theories but these theories are not true. The author says that conspiracy theories are not proven like scientific theories but they are difficult to ignore. Most of the time powerful people or groups developed conspiracy theories to achieve their sinister goals. Further, people also come up with conspiracy theories when they have distrust of authority, sense of powerlessness and uncertainty about themselves. Most of the time conspiracy theories have irrational explanations for complex events.
( little research carried out into what kind of events trigger conspiracytheories, who tends to believe them, and why. We do know, however, that people who believe in onetheory are more likely to believe in oter